The construction site is intended as a temporary work area in which building construction or civil engineering works are carried out. Construction sites can be fixed (for example, those for the construction of a building), or mobile (for the construction of roads, tunnels, railways, etc.). Statistically speaking, the construction site is one of the workplaces most at risk, in which it is easier to incur accidental events or accidents at work. As a result, ensuring safety on construction sites has become a priority for all companies and clients. The current legislation provides for a particularly complex and punctual regulation aimed at protecting workers.
Safety on construction sites: standards and prevention
The legislation on safety on construction sites is very articulated and has its roots in 1956, with Presidential Decree 164/1956 (Rules for the prevention of accidents at work in construction). That provision did not yet include a key element for safety, namely risk analysis and planning of measures to combat them effectively. Subsequently, the European Community issued the Construction Sites Directive 92/57/EEC for the management of temporary or mobile construction sites. In Italy this Directive has been implemented through Legislative Decree 494/1996 with variations with respect to the original standard. With this Decree, important provisions have been introduced on the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) and collective protective equipment (DPC). Finally, with Legislative Decree 81/2008, defined as the consolidated text on safety at work, Legislative Decree 494/1996 was repealed and included in the TUS in Title IV, a chapter specifically dedicated to the rules to ensure safety on construction sites.
Safety on construction sites: PSC, PSS and POS
The PSC stands for Safety and Coordination Plan, and is the document necessary for safety planning on construction sites where several executing companies are planned at the same time. The PSS, on the other hand, corresponds to the replacement Safety Plan, which represents the document to be prepared, in the case of public works, for construction sites with a single executing company. Finally, the POS, or the Safety Operational Plan, is the document that the Employer of the executing company draws up for the safe planning of its activities. A correct planning of the construction site must necessarily identify:
- analysis of operational activities
- identification of the subjects that intervene on site
- analysis of the schedule of activities
- analysis of work interferences.
Safety on site: risk analysis
The purpose of risk assessment is to identify the most appropriate interventions to prevent diseases and accidents at work and, in general, to reduce the possibility of harmful events occurring. Protective measures, on the other hand, tend to limit the negative effects of a possible harmful event.
Specifically, the interventions that the Customer must adopt are:
- organizational, operational measures and technological updates;
- technical measures of collective and individual prevention and protection;
- provide for the provision and use, by all workers, of adequate personal and collective protective equipment;
- information, training and training activities for workers.
Safety on construction sites: training and information
The risks associated with working on construction sites are many and can be traced back to several factors:
- risks related to organizational deficiencies
- interference between work activities
- Risk of falls from height
- Investments and crushing
- Exposure to noise and vibration
- Risk of contact with chemical agents or substances
Learning about these risks (and others of a specific nature) reduces the likelihood of potentially harmful events occurring.
Very important tools, in the field of safety on construction sites, are the training, information and training of workers, essential elements to increase the awareness and sensitivity of each worker.
Do you need to appoint the CSP, CSE or RdL for your construction site?
Safetyone Ingegneria Srl, thanks to its twenty years of experience in the sector, is able to provide you with a fast, economical and professional service.